🔷️RAID 0



🔷️RAID 1



🔷️RAID 5



🔷️RAID 6



🔷️RAID 10




No alternative text description for this image

CompTIA Security+ Acronyms

3DES Triple Digital Encryption Standard

AAA Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

ABAC Attribute-based Access Control

ACL Access Control List

AES Advanced Encryption Standard

ES256 Advanced Encryption Standards 256bit

AH Authentication Header

ALE Annualized Loss Expectancy

AP Access Point

API Application Programming Interface

APT Advanced Persistent Threat

ARO Annualized Rate of Occurrence

ARP Address Resolution Protocol

ASLR Address Space Layout Randomization

ASP Application Service Provider

AUP Acceptable Use Policy

AV Antivirus

BAC Business Availability Center

BCP Business Continuity Planning

BIA Business Impact Analysis

BIOS Basic Input/Output System

BPA Business Partners Agreement

BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit

BYOD Bring Your Own Device

CA Certificate Authority

CAC Common Access Card

CAN Controller Area Network

CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart

CAR Corrective Action Report

CBC Cipher Block Chaining

CCMP Counter-Mode/CBC-Mac Protocol

CCTV Closed-circuit Television

CER Certificate

CERT Computer Emergency Response Team

CFB Cipher Feedback

CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

CIO Chief Information Officer

CIRT Computer Incident Response Team

CMS Content Management System

COOP Continuity of Operations Plan

COPE Corporate Owned, Personally Enabled

CP Contingency Planning

CRC Cyclical Redundancy Check

CRL Certificate Revocation List

CSO Chief Security Officer

CSP Cloud Service Provider

CSR Certificate Signing Request

CSRF Cross-site Request Forgery

CSU Channel Service Unit

CTM Counter-Mode

CTO Chief Technology Officer

CTR CYOD Click-through rate Choose Your Own Device

DAC Discretionary Access Control

DBA Database Administrator

DDoS Distributed Denial of Service

DEP Data Execution Prevention

DER Distinguished Encoding Rules

DES Digital Encryption Standard

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHE Data-Handling Electronics

DHE Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral

DLL Dynamic Link Library

DLP Data Loss Prevention

DMZ Demilitarized Zone

DNAT Destination Network Address Transaction

DNS Domain Name Service (Server)

DoS Denial of Service

DRP Disaster Recovery Plan

DSA Digital Signature Algorithm

DSL Digital Subscriber Line

DSU Data Service Unit

EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol

ECB Electronic Code Book

ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography

ECDHE Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral

ECDSA Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

EFS Encrypted File System

EMI Electromagnetic Interference

EMP Electro Magnetic Pulse

ERP Enterprise Resource Planning

ESN Electronic Serial Number

ESP Encapsulated Security Payload

FACL File System Access Control List

FDE Full Disk Encryption

FRR False Rejection Rate

FTP File Transfer Protocol

FTPS Secured File Transfer Protocol

GCM Galois Counter Mode

GPG Gnu Privacy Guard

GPO Group Policy Object

GPS Global Positioning System

GPU Graphic Processing Unit

GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation

HA High Availability

HDD Hard Disk Drive

HIDS Host-based Intrusion Detection System

HIPS Host-based Intrusion Prevention System

HMAC Hashed Message Authentication Code

HOTP HMAC-based One-Time Password

HSM Hardware Security Module

HTML Hypertext Markup Language

HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol over SSL/TLS

HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

IaaS Infrastructure as a Service

ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol

ICS Industrial Control Systems

ID Identification

IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm

IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame

IdP Identity Provider

IDS Intrusion Detection System

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IKE Internet Key Exchange

IM Instant Messaging

IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol v4

IoT Internet of Things

IP Internet Protocol

IPSec Internet Protocol Security

IR Incident Response

IR Infrared

IRC Internet Relay Chat

IRP Incident Response Plan

ISA Interconnection Security Agreement

ISP Internet Service Provider

ISSO Information Systems Security Officer

ITCP IT Contingency Plan

IV Initialization Vector

KDC Key Distribution Center

KEK Key Encryption Key

L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

LAN Local Area Network

LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LEAP Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol

MaaS Monitoring as a Service

MAC Mandatory Access Control

MAC Media Access Control

MAC Message Authentication Code

MAN Metropolitan Area Network

MBR Master Boot Record

MD5 Message Digest 5

MDF Main Distribution Frame

MFD Multi-function Device

MITM Man-in-the-Middle

MMS Multimedia Message Service

MOA Memorandum of Agreement

MOU Memorandum of Understanding

MPLS Multi-protocol Label Switching

MSCHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

MSP Managed Service Provider

MTBF Mean Time Between Failures

MTTF Mean Time to Failure

MTTR Mean Time to Recover or Mean Time to Repair

MTU Maximum Transmission Unit

NAC Network Access Control

NAT Network Address Translation

NDA Non-disclosure Agreement

NFC Near Field Communication

NIDS Network-based Intrusion Detection System

NIPS Network-based Intrusion Prevention System

NIST National Institute of Standards & Technology

NTFS New Technology File System

NTLM New Technology

LAN Manager

NTP Network Time Protocol

OAUTH Open Authorization

OCSP Online Certificate Status Protocol

OID Object Identifier

OS Operating System

OTA Over The Air OVAL Open Vulnerability Assessment Language

P12 PKCS #12 P2P Peer to Peer PaaS Platform as a Service PAC Proxy Auto Configuration

PAM Pluggable Authentication Modules

PAP Password Authentication Protocol

PAT Port Address Translation

PBKDF2 Password-based Key Derivation Function 2

PBX Private Branch Exchange

PCAP Packet Capture

PEAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol

PED Personal Electronic Device

PEM Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail

PFS Perfect Forward Secrecy

PFX Personal Exchange Format

PGP Pretty Good Privacy

PHI Personal Health Information

PII Personally Identifiable Information

PIV Personal Identity Verification

PKI Public Key Infrastructure

POP Post Office Protocol

POTS Plain Old Telephone Service

PPP Point-to-Point Protocol

PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

PSK Pre-shared Key

PTZ Pan-Tilt-Zoom

RA Recovery Agent

RA Registration Authority

RAD Rapid Application Development

RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-in User Server

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

RAS Remote Access Server

RAT Remote Access Trojan

RBAC Role-based Access Control

RBAC Rule-based Access Control

RC4 Rivest Cipher version 4

RFID Radio Frequency Identifier

RIPEMD RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest

ROI Return on Investment

RPO Recovery Point Objective

RSA Rivest, Shamir, & Adleman

RTBH Remotely Triggered Black Hole

RTO Recovery Time Objective

RTOS Real-time Operating System

RTP Real-time Transport Protocol

S/MIME Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

SaaS Software as a Service

SAML Security Assertions Markup Language

SAN Storage Area Network

SAN Subject Alternative Name

SCADA System Control and Data Acquisition

SCAP Security Content Automation Protocol

SCEP Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol

SCSI Small Computer System Interface

SDK Software Development Kit

SDLC Software Development Life Cycle

SDLM Software Development Life Cycle Methodology

SDN Software Defined Network

SED Self-encrypting Drive

SEH Structured Exception Handler

SFTP Secured File Transfer Protocol

SHA Secure Hashing Algorithm

SHTTP Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol

SIEM Security Information and Event Management

SIM Subscriber Identity Module

SLA Service Level Agreement

SLE Single Loss Expectancy

SMS Short Message Service

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMTPS Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Secure

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol

SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol

SoC System on Chip

SPIM Spam over Internet Messaging

SQL Structured Query Language

SRTP Secure Real-Time Protocol

SSD Solid State Drive SSH Secure Shell

SSL Secure Sockets Layer

SSO Single Sign-on

STP Shielded Twisted Pair

TACACS+ Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus

TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TGT Ticket Granting Ticket

TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol

TLS Transport Layer Security

TOTP Time-based One-time Password

TPM Trusted Platform Module

TSIG Transaction Signature

UAT User Acceptance Testing

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UDP User Datagram Protocol

UEFI Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

UPS Uninterruptable Power Supply

URI Uniform Resource Identifier

URL Universal Resource Locator

USB Universal Serial Bus


UTM Unified Threat Management

UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair

VDE Virtual Desktop Environment

VDI Virtual Desktop Infrastructure

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network

VLSM Variable Length Subnet Masking

VM Virtual Machine

VoIP Voice over IP

VPN Virtual Private Network

VTC Video Teleconferencing

WAF Web Application Firewall

WAP Wireless Access Point

WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy

WIDS Wireless Intrusion Detection System

WIPS Wireless Intrusion Prevention System

WORM Write Once Read Many

WPA WiFi Protected Access

WPA2 WiFi Protected Access 2

WPS WiFi Protected Setup

WTLS Wireless TLS

XML Extensible Markup Language

XOR Exclusive Or XSRF Cross-site Request Forgery

XSS Cross-site Scripting

Looking for practice tests and online courses? Visit

CompTIA A+ 1002 Objectives

1.0 Operating Systems 27%

2.0 Security 24%

3.0 Software Troubleshooting 26%

4.0 Operational Procedures 23%

1.0 Operating Systems

1.1 Compare and contrast common operating system types and their purposes.

• 32-bit vs. 64-bit • Workstation operating systems • Cell phone/tablet operating systems • Vendor-specific limitations • Compatibility concerns between operating systems

1.2 Compare and contrast features of Microsoft Windows versions.

• Windows 7 • Windows 8 • Windows 8.1 • Windows 10 • Corporate vs. personal needs

1.3 Summarize general OS installation considerations and upgrade methods.

• Boot methods • Type of installations • Partitioning • File system types/formatting • Load alternate third-party drivers when necessary • Workgroup vs. Domain setup • Time/date/region/language settings • Driver installation, software, and Windows updates • Factory recovery partition • Properly formatted boot drive with the correct partitions/format • Prerequisites/hardware compatibility • Application compatibility • OS compatibility/upgrade path

1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft command line tools.

• shutdown • dism • sfc • chkdsk • diskpart • taskkill • gpupdate • gpresult • format • copy • xcopy • robocopy • net use • net user • [command name] /? • Commands available with standard privileges vs. administrative privileges

1.5 Given a scenario, use Microsoft operating system features and tools.

• Administrative • MSConfig • Task Manager • Disk Management • System utilities

1.6 Given a scenario, use Microsoft Windows Control Panel utilities.

• Internet Options • Display/Display Settings • User Accounts • Credential Manager • Programs and features • HomeGroup • Devices and Printers • Sound • Troubleshooting • Network and Sharing Center • Device Manager • Bitlocker • Sync Center

1.7 Summarize application installation and configuration concepts.

• System requirements • OS requirements • Methods of installation and deployment • Local user permissions

1.8 Given a scenario, configure Microsoft Windows networking on a client/desktop.

• HomeGroup vs. Workgroup • Domain setup • Network shares/administrative shares/mapping drives • Printer sharing vs. network printer mapping • Establish networking connections • Proxy settings • Remote Desktop Connection • Remote Assistance • Home vs. Work vs. Public network settings • Firewall settings

1.9 Given a scenario, use features and tools of the Mac OS and Linux client/desktop operating systems.

• Best practices • Tools • Features • Basic Linux commands

2.0 Security

2.1 Summarize the importance of physical security measures.

• Mantrap • Badge reader • Smart card • Security guard • Door lock • Biometric locks • Hardware tokens • Cable locks • Server locks • USB locks • Privacy screen • Key fobs • Entry control roster

2.2 Explain logical security concepts.

• MDM policies • Port security • MAC address filtering • Certificates • Antivirus/Anti-malware • Firewalls • User authentication/strong passwords • Multifactor authentication • Directory permissions • VPN • DLP • Access control lists • Smart card • Email filtering • Trusted/untrusted software sources • Principle of least privilege

2.3 Compare and contrast wireless security protocols and authentication methods

• Protocols and encryption • Authentication

2.4 Given a scenario, detect, remove, and prevent malware using appropriate tools and methods.

• Malware • Tools and methods

2.5 Compare and contrast social engineering, threats, and vulnerabilities.

• DDoS • DoS • Zero-day • Man-in-the-middle • Brute force • Dictionary • Rainbow table • Spoofing • Non-compliant systems • Zombie

2.6 Compare and contrast the differences of basic Microsoft Windows OS security settings.

User and groups • NTFS vs. share permissions • Shared files and folders • Run as administrator vs. standard user • BitLocker • BitLocker To Go • EFS

2.7 Given a scenario, implement security best practices to secure a workstation.

• Password best practices • Account management • Disable autorun • Data encryption • Patch/update management

2.8 Given a scenario, implement methods for securing mobile devices.

• Screen locks • Remote wipes • Locator applications • Remote backup applications • Failed login attempts restrictions • Antivirus/Anti-malware • Patching/OS updates • Biometric authentication • Full device encryption • Multifactor authentication

2.9 Given a scenario, implement appropriate data destruction and disposal methods.

• Physical destruction • Recycling or repurposing best practices

2.10 Given a scenario, configure security on SOHO wireless and wired networks.

• Wireless-specific s • Firewall settings • Port forwarding/mapping • Disabling ports • Content filtering/parental controls • Update firmware • Physical security

3.0 Software Troubleshooting

3.1 Given a scenario, troubleshoot Microsoft Windows OS problems.

• Common symptoms • Common solutions

3.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot and resolve PC security issues.

• Common symptoms

3.3 Given a scenario, use best practice procedures for malware removal.

1. Identify and research malware symptoms. 2. Quarantine the infected systems. 3. Disable System Restore (in Windows). 4. Remediate the infected systems. 5. Schedule scans and run updates. 6. Enable System Restore and create a restore point (in Windows). 7. Educate the end user.

3.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot mobile OS and application issues.

• Common symptoms

3.5 Given a scenario, troubleshoot mobile OS and application security issues.

• Common symptoms

4.0 Operational Procedures

4.1 Compare and contrast best practices associated with types of documentation.

Network topology diagrams • Knowledge base/articles • Incident documentation • Regulatory and compliance policy • Acceptable use policy

4.2 Given a scenario, implement basic change management best practices.

Documented business processes • Purpose of the change • Scope the change • Risk analysis • Plan for change • End-user acceptance

4.3 Given a scenario, implement basic disaster prevention and recovery methods

• Surge protector • Cloud storage vs. local storage backups • Account recovery options • Backup testing • UPS

4.4 Explain common safety procedures

• Equipment grounding • Proper component handling and storage

4.5 Explain environmental impacts and appropriate controls.

• MSDS documentation for handling and disposal • Temperature, humidity level awareness, and proper ventilation

4.6 Explain the processes for addressing prohibited content/ activity, and privacy, licensing, and policy concepts.

• Incident response • Licensing/DRM/EULA • Regulated data Follow all policies and security best practices

4.7 Given a scenario, use proper communication techniques and professionalism.

• Use proper language and avoid jargon, acronyms, and slang, when applicable • Maintain a positive attitude/ project confidence • Actively listen (taking notes) and avoid interrupting the customer • Be culturally sensitive

4.8 Identify the basics of scripting.

• Environment variables • Comment syntax • Basic script constructs

4.9 Given a scenario, use remote access technologies.

• RDP • Telnet • SSH • Third-party tools

Looking for online A+ training? Visit

CompTIA A+ 1001 Objectives

The CompTIA exam has six domains with several objectives within each domain.

1.0 Mobile Devices 14%

2.0 Networking 20%

3.0 Hardware 27%

4.0 Virtualization and Cloud Computing 12%

5.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting 27%

1.0 Mobile Devices

1.1 Given a scenario, install and configure laptop hardware and components

• Hardware/device replacement

1.2 Given a scenario, install components within the display of a laptop

• Types • WiFi antenna connector/placement • Webcam • Microphone • Inverter • Digitizer/touchscreen

1.3 Given a scenario, use appropriate laptop features.

• Docking station • Port replicator • Physical laptop lock and cable lock • Rotating/removable screens Special function keys

1.4 Compare and contrast characteristics of various types of other mobile devices.

• Tablets • Smartphones • Wearable technology devices • E-readers • GPS

1.5 Given a scenario, connect and configure accessories and ports of other mobile devices.

• Connection types • Accessories

1.6 Given a scenario, configure basic mobile device network connectivity and application support.

• Wireless/cellular data network (enable/disable) • Bluetooth • Corporate and ISP email configuration • Integrated commercial provider email configuration • PRI updates/PRL updates/ baseband updates • Radio firmware • IMEI vs. IMSI • VPN

1.7 Given a scenario, use methods to perform mobile device synchronization.

• Synchronization methods • Types of data to synchronize • Mutual authentication for multiple services (SSO) • Software requirements to install the application on the PC • Connection types to enable synchronization

2.0 Networking

2.1 Compare and contrast TCP and UDP ports, protocols, and their purposes.

• Ports and protocols • TCP vs. UDP

2.2 Compare and contrast common networking hardware devices

• Routers • Switches Access points • Cloud-based network controller • Firewall • Network interface card • Repeater • Hub • Cable/DSL modem • Bridge • Patch panel • Power over Ethernet (PoE)

2.3 Given a scenario, install and configure a basic wired/wireless SOHO network.

• Router/switch functionality • Access point settings • IP addressing • NIC configuration • End-user device configuration • IoT device configuration • Cable/DSL modem configuration • Firewall settings • QoS • Wireless settings

2.4 Compare and contrast wireless networking protocols.

• 802.11a • 802.11b • 802.11g • 802.11n • 802.11ac • Frequencies • Bluetooth • NFC • RFID • Zigbee • Z-Wave • 3G • 4G • 5G • LTE

2.5 Summarize the properties and purposes of services provided by networked hosts.

• Server roles • Internet appliance

2.6 Explain common network configuration concepts.

• IP addressing • DNS • DHCP • IPv4 vs. IPv6 • Subnet mask • Gateway • VPN • VLAN • NAT

2.7 Compare and contrast Internet connection types, network types, and their features.

• Internet connection types • Network types

2.8 Given a scenario, use appropriate networking tools.

• Crimper • Cable stripper • Multimeter • Tone generator and probe • Cable tester • Loopback plug • Punchdown tool • WiFi analyzer

3.0 Hardware

3.1 Explain basic cable types, features, and their purposes.

• Network cables • Video cables • Multipurpose cables • Peripheral cables • Hard drive cables

3.2 Identify common connector types.

RJ-11 • RJ-45 • RS-232 • BNC • RG-59 • RG-6 • USB • Micro-USB • Mini-USB • USB-C • DB-9 • Lightning • SCSI • eSATA • Molex

3.3 Given a scenario, install RAM types.

• RAM types • Single channel • Dual channel • Triple channel • Error correcting • Parity vs. non-parity

3.4 Given a scenario, select, install and configure storage devices.

• Optical drives • Solid-state drives • Magnetic hard drives • Hybrid drives • Flash

3.5 Given a scenario, install and configure motherboards, CPUs, and add-on cards.

Motherboard form factor • Motherboard connectors types • BIOS/UEFI settings • CMOS battery • CPU features • Compatibility • Cooling mechanism • Expansion cards

3.6 Explain the purposes and uses of various peripheral types

Printer • ADF/flatbed scanner • Barcode scanner/QR scanner • Monitors • VR headset • Optical • DVD drive • Mouse • Keyboard • Touchpad • Signature pad • Game controllers • Camera/webcam • Microphone • Speakers • Headset • Projector • External storage drives • KVM • Magnetic reader/chip reader • NFC/tap pay device • Smart card reader

3.7 Summarize power supply types and features

• Input 115V vs. 220V • Output 5.5V vs. 12V • 24-pin motherboard adapter • Wattage rating • Number of devices/types of devices to be powered

3.8 Given a scenario, select and configure appropriate components for a custom PC configuration to meet customer specifications or needs

• Graphic/CAD/CAM design workstation • Audio/video editing workstation • Virtualization workstation • Gaming PC • Standard thick client • Thin client

3.9 Given a scenario, install and configure common devices.

• Desktop • Laptop/common mobile devices

3.10 Given a scenario, configure SOHO multifunction devices/printers and settings.

• Use appropriate drivers for a given operating system • Device sharing • Public/shared devices

3.11 Given a scenario, install and maintain various print technologies.

• Laser • Inkjet • Thermal • Impact 3D Printers

4.0 Virtualization and Cloud Computing

4.1 Compare and contrast cloud computing concepts

• Common cloud models • Shared resources • Rapid elasticity • On-demand • Resource pooling • Measured service • Metered • Off-site email applications • Cloud file storage services • Virtual application streaming/ cloud-based applications

4.2 Given a scenario, set up and configure client-side virtualization.

• Purpose of virtual machines • Resource requirements • Emulator requirements • Security requirements • Network requirements • Hypervisor

5.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

5.1 Given a scenario, use the best practice methodology to resolve problems.

• Always consider corporate policies, procedures, and impacts before implementing changes 1. Identify the problem 2. Establish a theory of probable cause (question the obvious) 3. Test the theory to determine cause 4. Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement the solution 5. Verify full system functionality and, if applicable, implement preventive measures 6. Document findings, actions, and outcomes

5.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot problems related to motherboards, RAM, CPUs, and power.

• Common symptoms

5.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot hard drives and RAID arrays

• Common symptoms

5.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot video, projector, and display issues.

• Common symptoms

5.5 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile device issues while adhering to the appropriate procedures.

• Common symptoms • Disassembling processes for proper reassembly

5.6 Given a scenario, troubleshoot printers.

• Common symptoms

5.6 Common symptoms Given a scenario, troubleshoot common wired and wireless network problems.

• Common symptoms

Looking for online A+ training? Visit

What’s The OSI Model

OSI Model: The 7 Layers Of Networking

What’s The OSI Model? Since we can’t actually see what happens when we send an email, the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model was created to represent data traveling through the network.  The OSI model takes a layered approach starting at the physical equipment and goes up to the application layer then back to the physical layer.  This model allows users the ability to understand the 1 and 0’s (binary) of networking.  Let’s look at every layer a little more in-depth.



Layer 7 – Application Layer


The Application Layer is what you’re using to read this blog.  This layer houses all the applications a user will interact with.  Examples are Chrome, Safari, Facetime, Internet Explorer, Etc

Layer 6 – Presentation Layer


The Presentation Layer decides how things are presented to the user.  It’s responsible for encryption and decryption as well.  For example, when you log into your online bank the presentation layer ensures that the information is encrypted via SSL.

Layer 5 – Session Layer


The Session Layer is responsible  for initiating and terminating sessions.  So whenever you need to communicate with another person or device, the session layer makes it possible.

Layer 4 – Transport Layer


The Transport Layer is responsible for transporting data.  It accomplishes this via two methods.  UDP and TCP.  UDP transmission is very fast but maybe unreliable, while TCP is slower but very reliable.

Layer 3 – Network Layer


The Network Layer is where IP addressing and routing reside.  An IP address is simply your device’s address on the network.  This address is routed to its proper destination via a router.

Layer 2 – Data Link Layer


The Data Link layer is where mac addresses and switching reside.  MAC addresses are simply the physical address of every device on your network.  A switch ensures that the data gets to the correct destination on your network.

Layer 1 – Physical Layer


The Physical Layer is comprised of the physical components.  From cabling to motherboards and CPU pin layouts.

Remembering The 7 Layer OSI Model








Want to start your career in networking?  Visit Master I.T. to gain your networking certification in as little as two weeks!

Read 5 Reasons to get certified here