CompTIA CYSA+ Acronyms

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ACL Access Control List

ARP Address Resolution Protocol

BYOD Bring Your Own Device

CIS Center for Internet Security

CoBiT Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology

CCTV Closed-Circuit Television

CRM Customer Relations Management

DDoS Distributed Denial of Service

DNS Domain Name Service

EMET Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit

FISMA Federal Information Security Management Act

FTK Forensic Tool Kit

FTP File Transfer Protocol

HBSS Host Based Security System

HIDS Host Intrusion Detection System

HIPS Host Intrusion Prevention System

HR Human Resources

ICS Industrial Control Systems

IDS Intrusion Detection System

IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol

IOC Indicator of Compromise

IPS Intrusion Prevention System

ISO International Organization for Standardization

ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure Library

LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

MAC Mandatory Access Control

MD5 Message Digest 5

MOA Memorandum Of Agreement

MOU Memorandum Of Understanding

MRTG Multi Router Traffic Grapher

NAC Network Access Control

NAXSI Nginx Anti XSS & SQL Injection

NIC Network Interface Card

NIDS Network Intrusion Detection System

NIST National Institute of Standards & Technology

OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer

OSSIM Open Source Security Information Management

OWASP Open Web Application Security Project

PAM Pluggable Authentication Module

PCA Prinicpal Component Analysis

PCI Payment Card Industry

PHI Protected Health Information

PII Personally Identifiable Information

RACI Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed

RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service

SABSA Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture

SANS System Administration, Networking, and Security Institute

SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

SCAP Security Content Automation Protocol

SDLC Software Development Life Cycle

SEO Search Engine Optimization

SHA Secure Hash Algorithm

SIEM Security Incident and Event Manager

SLA Service Level Agreement

SOC Security Operations Center

SPF Sender Policy Framework

SSH Secure Shell

SSL Secure Sockets Layer

TACACS+ Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus

TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol

TLS Transport Layer Security

TOGAF The Open Group Architecture Framework

USB Universal Serial Bus

VAS Vulnerability Assessment System

VDI Virtual Desktop Infrastructure

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network

VPN Virtual Private Network

WAF Web Application Firewall

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CompTIA Security+ Acronyms

3DES Triple Digital Encryption Standard

AAA Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

ABAC Attribute-based Access Control

ACL Access Control List

AES Advanced Encryption Standard

ES256 Advanced Encryption Standards 256bit

AH Authentication Header

ALE Annualized Loss Expectancy

AP Access Point

API Application Programming Interface

APT Advanced Persistent Threat

ARO Annualized Rate of Occurrence

ARP Address Resolution Protocol

ASLR Address Space Layout Randomization

ASP Application Service Provider

AUP Acceptable Use Policy

AV Antivirus

BAC Business Availability Center

BCP Business Continuity Planning

BIA Business Impact Analysis

BIOS Basic Input/Output System

BPA Business Partners Agreement

BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit

BYOD Bring Your Own Device

CA Certificate Authority

CAC Common Access Card

CAN Controller Area Network

CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart

CAR Corrective Action Report

CBC Cipher Block Chaining

CCMP Counter-Mode/CBC-Mac Protocol

CCTV Closed-circuit Television

CER Certificate

CERT Computer Emergency Response Team

CFB Cipher Feedback

CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

CIO Chief Information Officer

CIRT Computer Incident Response Team

CMS Content Management System

COOP Continuity of Operations Plan

COPE Corporate Owned, Personally Enabled

CP Contingency Planning

CRC Cyclical Redundancy Check

CRL Certificate Revocation List

CSO Chief Security Officer

CSP Cloud Service Provider

CSR Certificate Signing Request

CSRF Cross-site Request Forgery

CSU Channel Service Unit

CTM Counter-Mode

CTO Chief Technology Officer

CTR CYOD Click-through rate Choose Your Own Device

DAC Discretionary Access Control

DBA Database Administrator

DDoS Distributed Denial of Service

DEP Data Execution Prevention

DER Distinguished Encoding Rules

DES Digital Encryption Standard

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

DHE Data-Handling Electronics

DHE Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral

DLL Dynamic Link Library

DLP Data Loss Prevention

DMZ Demilitarized Zone

DNAT Destination Network Address Transaction

DNS Domain Name Service (Server)

DoS Denial of Service

DRP Disaster Recovery Plan

DSA Digital Signature Algorithm

DSL Digital Subscriber Line

DSU Data Service Unit

EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol

ECB Electronic Code Book

ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography

ECDHE Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral

ECDSA Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

EFS Encrypted File System

EMI Electromagnetic Interference

EMP Electro Magnetic Pulse

ERP Enterprise Resource Planning

ESN Electronic Serial Number

ESP Encapsulated Security Payload

FACL File System Access Control List

FDE Full Disk Encryption

FRR False Rejection Rate

FTP File Transfer Protocol

FTPS Secured File Transfer Protocol

GCM Galois Counter Mode

GPG Gnu Privacy Guard

GPO Group Policy Object

GPS Global Positioning System

GPU Graphic Processing Unit

GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation

HA High Availability

HDD Hard Disk Drive

HIDS Host-based Intrusion Detection System

HIPS Host-based Intrusion Prevention System

HMAC Hashed Message Authentication Code

HOTP HMAC-based One-Time Password

HSM Hardware Security Module

HTML Hypertext Markup Language

HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol

HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol over SSL/TLS

HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

IaaS Infrastructure as a Service

ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol

ICS Industrial Control Systems

ID Identification

IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm

IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame

IdP Identity Provider

IDS Intrusion Detection System

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IKE Internet Key Exchange

IM Instant Messaging

IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol v4

IoT Internet of Things

IP Internet Protocol

IPSec Internet Protocol Security

IR Incident Response

IR Infrared

IRC Internet Relay Chat

IRP Incident Response Plan

ISA Interconnection Security Agreement

ISP Internet Service Provider

ISSO Information Systems Security Officer

ITCP IT Contingency Plan

IV Initialization Vector

KDC Key Distribution Center

KEK Key Encryption Key

L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

LAN Local Area Network

LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

LEAP Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol

MaaS Monitoring as a Service

MAC Mandatory Access Control

MAC Media Access Control

MAC Message Authentication Code

MAN Metropolitan Area Network

MBR Master Boot Record

MD5 Message Digest 5

MDF Main Distribution Frame

MFD Multi-function Device

MITM Man-in-the-Middle

MMS Multimedia Message Service

MOA Memorandum of Agreement

MOU Memorandum of Understanding

MPLS Multi-protocol Label Switching

MSCHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol

MSP Managed Service Provider

MTBF Mean Time Between Failures

MTTF Mean Time to Failure

MTTR Mean Time to Recover or Mean Time to Repair

MTU Maximum Transmission Unit

NAC Network Access Control

NAT Network Address Translation

NDA Non-disclosure Agreement

NFC Near Field Communication

NIDS Network-based Intrusion Detection System

NIPS Network-based Intrusion Prevention System

NIST National Institute of Standards & Technology

NTFS New Technology File System

NTLM New Technology

LAN Manager

NTP Network Time Protocol

OAUTH Open Authorization

OCSP Online Certificate Status Protocol

OID Object Identifier

OS Operating System

OTA Over The Air OVAL Open Vulnerability Assessment Language

P12 PKCS #12 P2P Peer to Peer PaaS Platform as a Service PAC Proxy Auto Configuration

PAM Pluggable Authentication Modules

PAP Password Authentication Protocol

PAT Port Address Translation

PBKDF2 Password-based Key Derivation Function 2

PBX Private Branch Exchange

PCAP Packet Capture

PEAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol

PED Personal Electronic Device

PEM Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail

PFS Perfect Forward Secrecy

PFX Personal Exchange Format

PGP Pretty Good Privacy

PHI Personal Health Information

PII Personally Identifiable Information

PIV Personal Identity Verification

PKI Public Key Infrastructure

POP Post Office Protocol

POTS Plain Old Telephone Service

PPP Point-to-Point Protocol

PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

PSK Pre-shared Key

PTZ Pan-Tilt-Zoom

RA Recovery Agent

RA Registration Authority

RAD Rapid Application Development

RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-in User Server

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

RAS Remote Access Server

RAT Remote Access Trojan

RBAC Role-based Access Control

RBAC Rule-based Access Control

RC4 Rivest Cipher version 4

RFID Radio Frequency Identifier

RIPEMD RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest

ROI Return on Investment

RPO Recovery Point Objective

RSA Rivest, Shamir, & Adleman

RTBH Remotely Triggered Black Hole

RTO Recovery Time Objective

RTOS Real-time Operating System

RTP Real-time Transport Protocol

S/MIME Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

SaaS Software as a Service

SAML Security Assertions Markup Language

SAN Storage Area Network

SAN Subject Alternative Name

SCADA System Control and Data Acquisition

SCAP Security Content Automation Protocol

SCEP Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol

SCSI Small Computer System Interface

SDK Software Development Kit

SDLC Software Development Life Cycle

SDLM Software Development Life Cycle Methodology

SDN Software Defined Network

SED Self-encrypting Drive

SEH Structured Exception Handler

SFTP Secured File Transfer Protocol

SHA Secure Hashing Algorithm

SHTTP Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol

SIEM Security Information and Event Management

SIM Subscriber Identity Module

SLA Service Level Agreement

SLE Single Loss Expectancy

SMS Short Message Service

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMTPS Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Secure

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol

SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol

SoC System on Chip

SPIM Spam over Internet Messaging

SQL Structured Query Language

SRTP Secure Real-Time Protocol

SSD Solid State Drive SSH Secure Shell

SSL Secure Sockets Layer

SSO Single Sign-on

STP Shielded Twisted Pair

TACACS+ Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus

TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TGT Ticket Granting Ticket

TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol

TLS Transport Layer Security

TOTP Time-based One-time Password

TPM Trusted Platform Module

TSIG Transaction Signature

UAT User Acceptance Testing

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UDP User Datagram Protocol

UEFI Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

UPS Uninterruptable Power Supply

URI Uniform Resource Identifier

URL Universal Resource Locator

USB Universal Serial Bus

USB OTG USB On The Go

UTM Unified Threat Management

UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair

VDE Virtual Desktop Environment

VDI Virtual Desktop Infrastructure

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network

VLSM Variable Length Subnet Masking

VM Virtual Machine

VoIP Voice over IP

VPN Virtual Private Network

VTC Video Teleconferencing

WAF Web Application Firewall

WAP Wireless Access Point

WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy

WIDS Wireless Intrusion Detection System

WIPS Wireless Intrusion Prevention System

WORM Write Once Read Many

WPA WiFi Protected Access

WPA2 WiFi Protected Access 2

WPS WiFi Protected Setup

WTLS Wireless TLS

XML Extensible Markup Language

XOR Exclusive Or XSRF Cross-site Request Forgery

XSS Cross-site Scripting

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CompTIA A+ 1002 Objectives

1.0 Operating Systems 27%

2.0 Security 24%

3.0 Software Troubleshooting 26%

4.0 Operational Procedures 23%

1.0 Operating Systems

1.1 Compare and contrast common operating system types and their purposes.

• 32-bit vs. 64-bit • Workstation operating systems • Cell phone/tablet operating systems • Vendor-specific limitations • Compatibility concerns between operating systems

1.2 Compare and contrast features of Microsoft Windows versions.

• Windows 7 • Windows 8 • Windows 8.1 • Windows 10 • Corporate vs. personal needs

1.3 Summarize general OS installation considerations and upgrade methods.

• Boot methods • Type of installations • Partitioning • File system types/formatting • Load alternate third-party drivers when necessary • Workgroup vs. Domain setup • Time/date/region/language settings • Driver installation, software, and Windows updates • Factory recovery partition • Properly formatted boot drive with the correct partitions/format • Prerequisites/hardware compatibility • Application compatibility • OS compatibility/upgrade path

1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft command line tools.

• shutdown • dism • sfc • chkdsk • diskpart • taskkill • gpupdate • gpresult • format • copy • xcopy • robocopy • net use • net user • [command name] /? • Commands available with standard privileges vs. administrative privileges

1.5 Given a scenario, use Microsoft operating system features and tools.

• Administrative • MSConfig • Task Manager • Disk Management • System utilities

1.6 Given a scenario, use Microsoft Windows Control Panel utilities.

• Internet Options • Display/Display Settings • User Accounts • Credential Manager • Programs and features • HomeGroup • Devices and Printers • Sound • Troubleshooting • Network and Sharing Center • Device Manager • Bitlocker • Sync Center

1.7 Summarize application installation and configuration concepts.

• System requirements • OS requirements • Methods of installation and deployment • Local user permissions

1.8 Given a scenario, configure Microsoft Windows networking on a client/desktop.

• HomeGroup vs. Workgroup • Domain setup • Network shares/administrative shares/mapping drives • Printer sharing vs. network printer mapping • Establish networking connections • Proxy settings • Remote Desktop Connection • Remote Assistance • Home vs. Work vs. Public network settings • Firewall settings

1.9 Given a scenario, use features and tools of the Mac OS and Linux client/desktop operating systems.

• Best practices • Tools • Features • Basic Linux commands

2.0 Security

2.1 Summarize the importance of physical security measures.

• Mantrap • Badge reader • Smart card • Security guard • Door lock • Biometric locks • Hardware tokens • Cable locks • Server locks • USB locks • Privacy screen • Key fobs • Entry control roster

2.2 Explain logical security concepts.

• MDM policies • Port security • MAC address filtering • Certificates • Antivirus/Anti-malware • Firewalls • User authentication/strong passwords • Multifactor authentication • Directory permissions • VPN • DLP • Access control lists • Smart card • Email filtering • Trusted/untrusted software sources • Principle of least privilege

2.3 Compare and contrast wireless security protocols and authentication methods

• Protocols and encryption • Authentication

2.4 Given a scenario, detect, remove, and prevent malware using appropriate tools and methods.

• Malware • Tools and methods

2.5 Compare and contrast social engineering, threats, and vulnerabilities.

• DDoS • DoS • Zero-day • Man-in-the-middle • Brute force • Dictionary • Rainbow table • Spoofing • Non-compliant systems • Zombie

2.6 Compare and contrast the differences of basic Microsoft Windows OS security settings.

User and groups • NTFS vs. share permissions • Shared files and folders • Run as administrator vs. standard user • BitLocker • BitLocker To Go • EFS

2.7 Given a scenario, implement security best practices to secure a workstation.

• Password best practices • Account management • Disable autorun • Data encryption • Patch/update management

2.8 Given a scenario, implement methods for securing mobile devices.

• Screen locks • Remote wipes • Locator applications • Remote backup applications • Failed login attempts restrictions • Antivirus/Anti-malware • Patching/OS updates • Biometric authentication • Full device encryption • Multifactor authentication

2.9 Given a scenario, implement appropriate data destruction and disposal methods.

• Physical destruction • Recycling or repurposing best practices

2.10 Given a scenario, configure security on SOHO wireless and wired networks.

• Wireless-specific s • Firewall settings • Port forwarding/mapping • Disabling ports • Content filtering/parental controls • Update firmware • Physical security

3.0 Software Troubleshooting

3.1 Given a scenario, troubleshoot Microsoft Windows OS problems.

• Common symptoms • Common solutions

3.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot and resolve PC security issues.

• Common symptoms

3.3 Given a scenario, use best practice procedures for malware removal.

1. Identify and research malware symptoms. 2. Quarantine the infected systems. 3. Disable System Restore (in Windows). 4. Remediate the infected systems. 5. Schedule scans and run updates. 6. Enable System Restore and create a restore point (in Windows). 7. Educate the end user.

3.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot mobile OS and application issues.

• Common symptoms

3.5 Given a scenario, troubleshoot mobile OS and application security issues.

• Common symptoms

4.0 Operational Procedures

4.1 Compare and contrast best practices associated with types of documentation.

Network topology diagrams • Knowledge base/articles • Incident documentation • Regulatory and compliance policy • Acceptable use policy

4.2 Given a scenario, implement basic change management best practices.

Documented business processes • Purpose of the change • Scope the change • Risk analysis • Plan for change • End-user acceptance

4.3 Given a scenario, implement basic disaster prevention and recovery methods

• Surge protector • Cloud storage vs. local storage backups • Account recovery options • Backup testing • UPS

4.4 Explain common safety procedures

• Equipment grounding • Proper component handling and storage

4.5 Explain environmental impacts and appropriate controls.

• MSDS documentation for handling and disposal • Temperature, humidity level awareness, and proper ventilation

4.6 Explain the processes for addressing prohibited content/ activity, and privacy, licensing, and policy concepts.

• Incident response • Licensing/DRM/EULA • Regulated data Follow all policies and security best practices

4.7 Given a scenario, use proper communication techniques and professionalism.

• Use proper language and avoid jargon, acronyms, and slang, when applicable • Maintain a positive attitude/ project confidence • Actively listen (taking notes) and avoid interrupting the customer • Be culturally sensitive

4.8 Identify the basics of scripting.

• Environment variables • Comment syntax • Basic script constructs

4.9 Given a scenario, use remote access technologies.

• RDP • Telnet • SSH • Third-party tools

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SPEARPHISHING: HUNTING FOR CEO’S

This attack targets the most important people in an organization. Most times CEO’s, CFO’s or key personnel in the I.T. department. The name can be understood by this analogy. A hunter can cast a wide net and catch a lot of small fish or he can use a spear to catch a few big fish. The attack is usually done via phone, email or in person thru social engineering.

Educating all users about threat mitigation and potential threats can reduce the effects of spear phishing.

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What’s Google Chrome Incognito Mode? In Private Browsing

I’ll bet your reading this blog in a chrome browser… How do I know? Because chrome is currently the #1 used browser in the world! But did you know Google Chrome has an incognito mode? When in Incognito mode browsing history is not cached. Allowing a person to browse the web without storing data to the local device. So with incognito mode, you can pretty much do whatever you want right? Wrong! While incognito mode doesn’t store browsing history on the local machine, it still sends information to the DNS server as well as the internet service provider. So is incognito mode useless? Incognito mode is far from useless and adds an additional layer of security. Althoguh a dedicated VPN would be a better solution to have complete anonymity.

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